- 1 Meaning and definition of speed in physical education-
- 2 Types of speed in physical education
- 3 Some other types of speed in physical education –
- 4 Speed table for games –
- 5 FACTORS AFFECTING SPEED in physical education
- 6 Energy system for speed in physical education
- 7 development of speed in physical education
- 8 Methods of speed development in physical education –
- 9 Some other methods to develop speed in physical education-
- 10 Things to consider for speed development –
Meaning and definition of speed in physical education-
Speed in physical education is one of the most important fitness components, whether one plays sports or not, everyone wants speed because actions in everyday life situations need to be carried out at the appropriate speed to be able to achieve success (catching a falling object to prevent it’s break, stepping on a piece of paper if it´s being blown by the wind…).
In many sports speed also have an important role. Speed is the most important aspect of fitness for some athletes such as Track and Field sprinters, sprint swimmers, cyclists and speed skaters,etc. In lots of different sports activities, including team field sports, good speed is also essential as a part of the general fitness profile.
Speed in physical education is defined according to the needs of specific sport. From other courses we are able to define speed as the capacity of performing a movement or covering a distance as fast as possible.
The distance traveled in particular time by an object is the speed of that object.
speed and neuro – muscular system
Speed has a direct relationship with the nervous system and the muscular system. Speed in physical education is considered a physical component. The brain and nervous system control and coordinate the movements of our muscles. The voluntary or striated muscles (muscles attached to the skeleton ) are regulated by the parts of the brain generally known as the cerebral motor cortex and the cerebellum.
When we wish to move part of our body, a message is send by the motor cortex to the cerebellum ( the movement coordination is controlled by it) and to a particular neurons (nerve cells), known as upper motor neurons. Upper motor neurons ( which have long axon or tail) that go into and through the brain, and into the spinal cord, where they connect with lower motor
neurons. In the spinal cord, the lower motor neurons send their axons through nerves in the legs and arms directly to the muscle they control so it contracts. The combination of the nervous system and muscles, working collectively to allow movement, is called the neuromuscular system.
Muscle fibers and speed –
In voluntary muscles two types of fibres are present:
1) Slow-twitch fibers :
These are red in colour and have a good oxygen supply which helps to maintain the use of the aerobic energy system. Their contraction is slow and they resist fatigue more than the fast-twitch fibers. That’s why these fibres are more effective for
endurance related physical activities.
2) Fast-twitch fibers (type IIa and type IIb ) :
These are white in colour and muscle contractions produced by them using both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism is fast and strong, though they’re less resistant to fatigue than Slow twitch fibres. They’re appropriate for explosive physical activities.
These fibres can be used for moderate intensity workout. They’re also often used for low intensity aerobic exercises when we are very fatigued and the Slow twitch fibres are drained.
These fibres are used in explosive, powerful and fast actions. They get drain in a short time.
A mix of fibre types is present in the muscle of human however the quantity of fast and slow twitch fibres is principally hereditary, so training can not have an effect on the distribution of them however some proof is present that training can force slow-twitch fibres take on characteristics of type IIa fast-twitch fibres. Roughly 60% fast muscle fiber and 40% slow-twitch fiber are present in an average person.
Types of speed in physical education
Speed in physical education is divided in following major types :
Reaction speed in physical education –
Reaction speed is the quickness of a response given to an external stimulus by a person. Stimulus may be tactile, visual or auditory.
Simple and Complex Reactions:
Simple: the performer is concerned in just one stimulus and one response, both known in advance (the start in a race responding to the pistol fired at starting).
Complex: the performer must react to various kinds of stimulus and select between totally different reactions using the most suitable in every situation (actions of goalkeeper, actions in combat sports ).
Displacement speed in physical education –
Displacement speed is the capacity to cover a certain distance in as low time as possible. ( how fast the sprinter can run, or the
swimmer can swim in particular time ).
It depends upon:
- Direction (Range) of movement.
- Concerned Muscles Strength.
- Frequency of the movement.
- Right technique.
Movement speed –
Movement speed is how quickly an individual can perform a movement or carry out a skill (tennis serve, kicking a football, hitting a ball in cricket). Coordination is a really necessary factor of movement speed, it is also related to a correct learning in the specific sport movement or technique.
Some other types of speed in physical education –
There are some other types of speed in physical education these are following :
Maximal speed In physical education –
Maximal speed is the maximum speed an athlete can attain. This usually happens 3 to 5 seconds after a start from a stationary position.
Acceleration speed In Physical Education –
Acceleration speed in sports activities such as netball, basketball, soccer and tennis is essential. These are sports activities wherein short sprints are performed and maximal speed is probably not reached. The capacity to jump long and high, get off the mark or take a gap is more necessary than maximal speed in these sports activities.
Speed endurance In Physical Education –
Speed endurance is the capacity to maintain maximal speed or near-maximal speed and to face up to the fatigue effects. Longer than 5 seconds events such as running (100 to 400 m ), Swimming ( 50 to 100 m ), team games ( netball, basketball, water polo) and individual games ( tennis, squash, badminton), wherein the time to recover between sprints is not long enough, require speed endurance of a high level.
Change-of-direction speed In Physical Education-
Change-of-direction speed is essential in most team and racquet sports activities. The capacity to chase an opponent in team games and quickly change of direction in racquet sports activities requires agility in addition to acceleration speed.
Speed table for games –
Different types of speed in physical education can be evaluated according to the need in specific games.
Table 1.1 suggests which of the types of speed are essential for which games –
|CHANGE OF DIRECTION
|SWIMMING, RUNNING, CYCLING
|SQUASH, TENNIS, BADMINTON
FACTORS AFFECTING SPEED in physical education
Some factors which affect speed in physical education :
- Speed in the transmission of nerve impulses (it varies from one individual to another).
Neuro muscular coordination:
it is related to the capacity of the nervous system to recruit a muscle or group of muscles efficiently so as to carry out a particular activity.
Working Neuromuscular coordination in two levels :
1) Intra-Muscular Coordination: If the all fibers within the muscle contract and
relax in synchronization, then more muscle power is produced. Principally, the
better your intramuscular coordination, the more effectively the muscle is
2) Inter-Muscular Coordination: The coordination of different muscles or group muscles while performing a particular activity or exercise is known as inter muscular coordination. example of group muscles are (agonists, antagonists, stabilizers and neutralizers)
Intra and inter-muscular coordination enhance with repetitions training; muscles adaptation and learn to do particular game skills effectively, as soon as an individual develops a certain level of coordination in a skill they needn’t to focus a lot on it.
Speed in the muscle contraction
Contraction speed depends upon the characteristics and distribution of slow and fast twitch fibers every individual primarily has and it’s genetically decided so it doesn’t change considerably with training. The fast muscle (type IIa) moves 5 times quicker than the slow muscle, and the super-fast (type IIb) moves 10 times quicker than the slow muscle fiber.
Level of Muscle strength
Speed in physical education is related with muscle strength. There’s a sturdy connection between speed and strength; each contribute to power (the capacity to rapidly produce strength over a certain distance or time).
Gender and age based
At the time when nervous system and the locomotor system develop then level of speed is increased. Girls and boys have the same levels of speed till the starting of puberty (12 years old); throughout puberty, muscular strength develops in each genders however is extra pronounced in boys, due to this fact it gives them increased levels of speed. Around the age of 20 years the speed development is highest and with the right training it may be maintained and even get higher till 30-35 years of age.
Right technique and sport performance
It will help you be extra effectively in your movements, do them quicker and likewise keep away from taking injuries. You may enhance the bio mechanical sport movements by educating the mind and the body the proper motor patterns and save them in your muscle memory so you may repeat them with out thinking particularly when you find yourself drained.
It affect the response time to the stimulus. Growing anticipation expertise is one the quality of best athletes. Anticipation is a game
specific capability to cut back the time it takes to respond to a stimulus, with the ability to react to an stimulus earlier than it’s real happening (a tennis participant who anticipates the kind of serve the opponent will use, detecting certain clues early in the serving sequence that predicts the potential kind of serve so the participant can begin moving in the direction of the serve faster than normal). In anticipation, expertise is an important factor.
Energy system for speed in physical education
Speed in physical education is studied by understanding energy system for it. Anaerobic alactic pathway provides energy for absolute speed. The anaerobic (with out oxygen) alactic (with out lactate) energy system is challenged best as an sprinter approaches highest speed between 30 and 60 mtrs while working at 95 percent to 100 percent of maximum. This speed component (of anaerobic metabolism ) lasts for roughly 8 seconds and must be trained when muscle fatigue is absent (normally after 1 – 1.5 day of relaxation period).
development of speed in physical education
Speed in physical education can be understood better by studying development factors of it.
The strategy of sprinting should be rehearsed at slow speeds after which transferred to runs at top speed. The stimulation, excitation and proper firing order of the motor units, composed of a motor nerve (Neuron) and the group of muscles that it supplies, makes it attainable for high-frequency movements to happen. The entire phenomenon isn’t very clear, however the complex coordination and timing of the motor units and muscles actually have to be rehearsed at top speeds to implant the proper patterns.
Flexibility and an accurate WARM UP will have a positive impact on length and frequency of stride. Length of stride will be improved by growing muscular strength, power, strength endurance and technique of sprinting. Speed development is mostly specific, and to attain it, we must always make sure that:
- Flexibility is developed and maintained all 12 months round.
- Strength and speed are developed in parallel.
- The technique of Skill improvement is pre-learned, rehearsed and perfected earlier than it’s actually performed at high-speed.
- Speed training is carried out through the use of high velocity for small intervals. In the end it will bring into play the right neuromuscular pathways and energy sources used.
Methods of speed development in physical education –
Major development methods of speed in physical education are written below.
Speed training is based in fractional training methods. These training methods divide the training session in parts, with full or incomplete resting intervals between them, depending on the training goals.
Interval training In Physical Education –
It consists of exercising by way of comparatively short distances followed by incomplete resting intervals. Intensity will be high, between 70 – 95 percent of the maximum. Distances are between 100 m to 400 m if running or efforts lasting from 15”–4´; repetitions are from 10rp – 30rp, the resting intervals will be performed, resting, walking or with very easy running, till the heart rate reaches 120-140 bmp.
Repetitions training In Physical Education –
It consists of exercising by way of comparatively short distances or time followed by full resting intervals. This permits a higher intensity of exercise. Intensity is very high, between 85 – 100 percent of the maximum; it may be performed using series (3-5) and repetitions (3-5). Recovering between repetitions and series must be till the heart rate reaches near about 90-bmp.
Some other methods to develop speed in physical education-
- Explosive hopping, jumping, bounding, hitting, and kicking can be developed by PLYOMETRICS.
- High-speed sending and receiving movements can be developed by BALLISTICS.
- Sprinting technique can be developed by sprinting type and speed endurance so as to enhancing the
length of time you’ll be capable to keep your speed.
- Specific speed (Parachute, belts…) is developed by practicing specific actions related to that sport or game.
- Muscle strength can be enhanced by Weight lifting.
- Muscle strength and running technique can be improved by running ( downhill and uphill ).
- Over speed training in physical education:
Response time can be enhanced by reacting to things that move quicker than the actual needs of the game : a baseball participant may take batting practice whereas using a pitching machine that throws pitches at 130-150 miles/hour. His mind would adapt to
seeing the high speed pitches, this may enhance his potential to react to an actual pitch (90-100 mile/hour).
Things to consider for speed development –
The development of speed in physical education is very specific and to attain it we must always be certain that:
- All speed exercises must include an sufficient warm up and cool down.
- Before starting speed and sprint training drills we must achieve a basic physical fitness level.
- Through all 12 months we should develop and maintain flexibility ( muscular elasticity and joint mobility ).
- Development should be done parallel for speed and strength.
- The technique of skill improvement and coordination must be pre-learned, rehearsed and perfected earlier than it’s performed at top speed levels.
- The correct neuro muscular pathways and energy sources used are necessary for speed developmrnt. And these may be bring by training high velocity for short intervals.
- Resting intervals should be managed not only with the heart rate but also with muscle fatigue.
- Between speed training periods rest should be taken for 48 – 72 hours.
- If in the same workout session more physical components are going to be labored then the workout
should begin with speed training.
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